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Zeno of Citium, Ancient Greek Philosopher

Zeno of Citium (334 - 262 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher. He was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with Nature. It proved very successful, and flourished as the dominant philosophy from the Hellenistic period through to the Roman era. He divided philosophy into three parts: Logic (including rhetoric, grammar, and the theories of perception and thought); Physics (not just science, but the divine nature of the universe as well); and Ethics, the end goal of which was to achieve happiness through the right way of living according to Nature. During his lifetime, he received appreciation for his philosophical and pedagogical teachings. He was honored with the golden crown,and a tomb was built in honor of his moral influence on the youth of his era. He died around 262 BC. Laertius reports about his death: As he was leaving the school he tripped and fell, breaking his toe. Striking the ground with his fist, he quoted the line from the Niobe: "I come, I come, why dost thou call for me?" and died on the spot through holding his breath. Engraving from "The History of Philosophy" by Thomas Stanley published in three successive volumes between 1655 and 1661.

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