ANATOMY OF THE FETUS - stock photo
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Model of the internal anatomy of an adult female pelvis (median section) at the term of pregnancy (fetus at 40 weeks of amenorrhea, or nine months of pregnancy). Entirely filling the uterine cavity, the at-term fetus measures about 50 cm and weighs a little more than 3 kg. It has turned head down, ready for parturition. The fetus floats in the amniotic fluid that fills the amniotic cavity, surrounded by a membrane, the amnion (white). The fetus is linked to the placenta (in pink) through the umbilical cord (red) which enables feto-maternal exchanges. During pregnancy, the womb gradually occupies the whole of the abdominal cavity, pushing the digestive organs upwards (not visible here). The uterine cervix (4) leads to the vagina (5). Located under the womb, the urinary bladder (9), compressed by the fetus, is linked to the urethra (10) which leads to the labia minora (6) of the vulva. The female genitalia includes the pubis, a mound of fatty tissue (yellow) covering the pubic symphysis (11, pelvic bone, bluish), the labia majora and minora of the vulva (6 and 7, cutaneous folds) and the clitoris (8, flesh-colored, located in front of the labia minora). Towards the back, the rectum is composed of two segments: the rectal ampulla in its upper part, which stores feces, and the anal canal, ending in the anus. The opening of the extremity of the anal canal, the anus, is controlled by an internal anal sphincter, composed of smooth muscle (reflex opening for defecation) and an external anal sphincter of striated muscle (voluntary relaxation). Dorsally, the lower part of the spine is known as the lumbar region, the last three vertebrae of which are visible here; it ends in the sacrum (15), a bone resulting from the fusion of the five sacral vertebrae, and finally the coccyx (14). Intervertebral discs are located between each vertebra (16, light blue) for cushioning shocks. Vertebrae are composed of a vertebral body (anterior) and a neural arch (posterior); they surround...


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